ISSN 1301-109X | e-ISSN 2147-8325
TURKISH JOURNAL of IMMUNOLOGY - Turk J Immunol: 11 (3)
Volume: 11  Issue: 3 - 2023

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Gunnur Deniz
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3.Overview of Autoimmunity: Classification, Disease Mechanisms, and Etiology
Shanti Narayanappa Koppala, Vaishnavi Guruprasad
doi: 10.4274/tji.galenos.2024.13008  Pages 93 - 105
Autoimmunity and its associated diseases have been the primary area of focus in research in the past decade; however, several mechanisms are still left unclear. Autoimmune diseases are idiopathic and currently, there are hardly any genetic tools available to predict who is at risk of developing them. With the advancement of artificial intelligence, it could be possible to predict the potential emergence of autoimmune disorders. This review article discusses the disease classification and relevant causes, including environmental, biological, and genetic factors. Additionally, it explores certain mechanisms where the T-regulatory cells fail and lead to disease development. The article delves into the etiology to illustrate how autoimmune diseases could develop in a person as well as therapeutic approaches are also discussed. With the development of multiplex technologies, it is easier to detect autoantibodies in blood while cytokines and chemokines can give a breakthrough in diagnosis and novel therapeutics for these diseases.

4.In Silico Comparative Expression Analyses of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Human Eosinophil Cell Lines and Primary Eosinophils
Zulal Celik, Edanur Barutcu, Yagmur Ozcelebi, Elif Yaprak Sarac, Ceren Ciraci
doi: 10.4274/tji.galenos.2023.28199  Pages 106 - 116
Objective: Eosinophils are one of the least abundant leukocytes in blood circulation; however, they compensate for this sparsity by highly potent content of their granules. Their involvement in numerous pathological conditions including acute and chronic infections make them an interesting research area for the field of immunology. Eosinophils play critical roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis through their effector and modulatory functions in shaping innate and adaptive responses. Although they are mainly known for their roles in parasitic infections, it has become increasingly clear that eosinophils function not only in fungal, bacterial and viral infections, but also in tissue repair and signaling pathways regulating mast cells, Th2 and B cells. Of all the mediators of innate immunity, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are of great importance in the context of the stimuli. Therefore, we analyzed and cross-checked mRNA expression profiles of membrane-bound and cytosolic PRRs by comparing EoL-1 and HL-60 human eosinophil like cell lines to human primary eosinophils in silico.
Materials and Methods: Utilizing publicly available databases, we analyzed PRR repertoires of eosinophils to determine the most ideal cell line models for in vitro mechanistic studies, requiring high protein and mRNA yields.
Results: Our findings revealed that toll-like receptors 2 and NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) had higher basal expressions in both cell lines than human primary eosinophils as opposed to NLRP12, laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), Dectin-1, whose expressions were higher in primary eosinophils than in both cell lines.
Conclusion: These data might attribute new physiological functions to these receptors of NLR, RIG-I like receptor and C-type lectin receptor families in eosinophil immunity.

5.Immunophenotype, Clinical Effect, and Comparison of TNFRSF13B/TACI Mutations: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study of 34 Patients
Esra Cepniler, Emin Abdullayev, Sefika Ilknur Kokcu Karadag, Alisan Yildiran
doi: 10.4274/tji.galenos.2024.32154  Pages 117 - 126
Objective: In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings, complications, and responses to regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment of 34 common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients with transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) mutation were evaluated retrospectively.
Materials and Methods: The clinical characteristics, immunological and laboratory findings of patients whose TACI mutation was detected by the next generation sequencing method and who were followed in our clinic with the diagnosis of CVID were examined.
Results: Of the patients, 20 (59%) were male and 14 (41%) were female. Eighteen patients were children (<18 years old) who had a median age of genetic diagnosis of 6.2 years and 16 were adults (>18 years) with a median age of genetic diagnosis of 34 years. The most common complaint was recurrent respiratory tract infection (68%). In 20 of the patients, lymphoproliferation and related lymphoproliferation, growth retardation, lymphoma, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, autoimmune neutropenia, Celiac disease, bronchiectasis, type 1 Diabetes, and asthma were observed. A statistically significant difference was detected between the lymphocyte values of pediatric and adult patients who had comorbidity and those that were not detected. According to the European Society of Immunodeficiencies/the Pan-American Immunodeficiency Group (ESID/PAGID), 16 patients who met the diagnostic criteria had significantly lower lymphocyte, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, naïve (CD19+IgD+CD27-), non-switched cell (CD19+IgD-CD27+) percentage than 18 patients who did not match. Of 34 patients, a total of 24, 13 of whom were children and 11 of whom were adults, received regular IVIG treatment because they met the criteria for ESID/PAGID and/or had comorbidities.
Conclusion: In our study, the fact that bronchiectasis and recurrent pneumonia and the need for hospitalized treatment were less common than in the literature was thought to be related to early IVIG treatment.

6.NETosis Induced by Serum of Patients with COVID-19 is Reduced with Reparixin or Antibodies Against DEK and IL-8
Irfan Baki Kilic, Acelya Yasar, Irem Yalim Camci, Turkan Guzel, Aysegul Karahasan, Tamer Yagci, Naci Cine, Ayten Kandilci
doi: 10.4274/tji.galenos.2024.74745  Pages 127 - 135
Objective: NETosis, a suicide mechanism of neutrophils, is an important immune defense mechanism against pathogens, and when uncontrolled, it contributes to severe tissue damage leading to acute lung injury in influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infections. Here we aimed to determine whether blocking of C-X-C motif chemokine receptors 1/2 (CXCR1/2) by reparixin prevents in vitro NETosis induced by either recombinant DEK (rDEK), recombinant interleukin-8 (rIL-8) (both interacts with CXCR2 receptor) or the serum of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Materials and Methods: Level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NETosis markers in the serum of COVID-19 patients were determined by ELISA. NETosis was induced by treating neutrophils with either rDEK, rIL-8 or COVID-19 patients’ serum in the presence or absence of reparixin, anti-DEK or anti-IL-8 antibodies. Subsequently, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, presence of extracellular neutrophil elastase, and morphology of the cells were analyzed to determine NETosis.
Results: IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, MPO, and citrullinated histone H3 were increased whereas DEK was moderately decreased in the circulation of the COVID-19 patients. Reparixin and the antibodies against either DEK or IL-8 suppressed the NETosis induced by either the patients’ serums or by the rDEK and rIL-8.
Conclusion: Our results show for the first time that DEK-CXCR2 interaction plays a role in the NETosis and support the use of reparixin as a potential therapeutic strategy in COVID-19.

7.Immunohistochemical Approach to Evaluate and Compare the Expression of CD44 in Oral Premalignant Disorders and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Retrospective Study
Swaathi Ravindran, Nandhini Gunasekaran, Amritha James, Tharani Vijayakumar, Rajkumar Krishnan
doi: 10.4274/tji.galenos.2024.38258  Pages 136 - 141
Objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent kind of head and neck cancer. Oral premalignant diseases (OPMD) such as oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral lichen planus (OLP), have a higher risk of developing into OSCC. Due to the cellular milieu created by exposure to smoking, alcohol, betel nuts, or the human papillomavirus, the stratified squamous epithelium that covers the oral cavity is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to carcinogenic damage. This can further lead to the formation of dysplastic or hyperkeratotic epithelium, which further transforms to OPMDs. Recently, it has been shown that cancer cells display the cell surface glycoprotein cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), which may be cleaved at the ectodomain to produce soluble CD44. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare CD44 expression as a prognostic marker for OPMD-related cancer development using immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Materials and Methods: The expression of CD44 was assessed by IHC in 80 paraffin-embedded tissues [20 normal mucosa (control), 20 OLP cases, 20 OSMF cases, and 20 OSCC patients] in this retrospective investigation. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an independent student’s t-test were used to conduct the statistical analysis.
Results: Using an independent sample t-test, comparisons between the control vs OLP, control vs. OSMF, control vs. OSCC, OLP vs. OSCC, and OSMF vs. OSCC all demonstrated statistical significance with p-values of <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively. However, a statistical analysis of the comparison between OLP and OSMF with a p-value of 0.894 revealed no statistical significance.
Conclusion: Thus, it has been concluded that CD44 can be employed as a diagnostic marker for the change from healthy mucosa to premalignant and malignant tissue based on the level of expression using IHC.

8.2023 Referee Index

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9.2023 Author Index

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10.2023 Subject Index

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