ISSN 1301-109X | e-ISSN 2147-8325
Hyperinflammation Syndrome in COVID-19 Disease: Pathogenesis and Potential Immunomodulatory Agents [TJI]
TJI. 2021; 9(1): 1-11 | DOI: 10.5222/TJI.2021.92486

Hyperinflammation Syndrome in COVID-19 Disease: Pathogenesis and Potential Immunomodulatory Agents

Moulid Hidayat1, Diah Handayani2, Fariz Nurwidya2, Sita Laksmi Andarini2
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Mataram, Indonesia.
2Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia-Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta, Indonesia

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by infection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has affected millions of people in the world. The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COVID-19 disease are tightly influenced by the host immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. In some condition, the immune response might be uncontrolled, giving rise to hyperinflammatory conditions marked by excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines (cytokine storms) in severe COVID-19 patients, which then can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure, and death. Furthermore, treatment using immunomodulator agents including immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents can be an option in achieving successful treatment. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of the disease, including host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, and immune mechanisms which contribute to the disease severity and death as well as several potential immunomodulatory agents which can be used in the management of hyperinflammatory syndrome of severe COVID-19.

Keywords: hyperinflammation syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Immunomodulatory treatment, cytokine storms

Moulid Hidayat, Diah Handayani, Fariz Nurwidya, Sita Laksmi Andarini. Hyperinflammation Syndrome in COVID-19 Disease: Pathogenesis and Potential Immunomodulatory Agents. TJI. 2021; 9(1): 1-11

Corresponding Author: Moulid Hidayat, Indonesia
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